Nott's theory provided the underpinnings for the assumption that the human species consisted of separate races. Elbert B. Smith A common explanation is that the Civil War was fought over the moral issue of slavery. Correct Many had biracial congregations. Slavery was, by a wide margin, the single most important cause of the Civil War -- for both sides. It was more than a war over the continuation or abolishment of slavery. Most Southerners were small farmers that could not afford slaves. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. 16 Oct. 2020 . A common belief is that it was the dispute about the morality of slavery that caused the southern states to secede but in reality, it was the economic and political issues of slavery that really played a part in the outbreak of the war. Others fought to preserve the Union. In the long term these actions were counterproductive because the abolitionists were able to use them as examples of the threat posed to a liberal democratic society by what they called the slaveocracy. Helper is not concerned with the morality of slavery so much as he is with its social and economic effects. The slave economy had been very good to … It was a constitutional crisis over the meaning of the Tenth Amendment or … Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. While it is clear that suffering ought to have been minimized, in a broader sense he cannot bring us closer to an understanding of how a war that became a conflict over slavery ought to have been waged. Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic, Vol. The Liberator's editor was not the only voice among the abolitionists, and many others in the movement spoke as resolutely or nearly as inexorably as Garrison did. Emancipation was not the result of a moral crusade against evil but a byproduct of a ruthless war of invasion and conquest. In conclusion, the Civil War might not be as black and white as we would like to believe. Horace Greeley was America's leading journalist of the Civil Wa…, Buchanan, James Wells helps shine a light on how New York offered insurance, loans, brokerage, ships and more which helped maintain the slave economy and continue the transatlantic slave trade – to the financial benefit of the city. The Civil War had officially abolished slavery, but it didn’t end discrimination against ...read more Niagara Movement The Niagara Movement … Ashworth, John. Washington, D.C. American Slavery as…, Born February 1818? Carson, Clayborne; Emma Lapansky-Werner; and Gary B. Nash. The North was opposed to slavery long before the Civil War. With the end of the Civil War came the end of slavery in the United States. Seemingly, slavery—and, for abolitionists, the evils of slavery—were being talked about everywhere, and neither a gag rule in Congress nor mobs in northern as well as in southern cities could silence the debate. Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America. Hyser, Raymond M., and J. Chris Arndt, eds. Years of constant disagreeing, compromises, and cynical ideas about slavery pushed the country into a terrible conflict between the Northern abolitionists and the Southern proslavery farmers and plantation owners. Legally and constitutionally, the war resolved the single most important moral question that afflicted the young republic and hampered the emergence of the country as a moral and economic leader on the world stage. Abolitionist, writer, and speaker One of the moral arguments regarding slavery was a counterargument to the idea that the Southern U.S. economy depended on the institution. Legally and constitutionally, the war resolved the single most important moral question that afflicted the young republic and hampered the emergence of the country as a moral and economic leader on the world stage. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Years of constant disagreeing, compromises, and cynical ideas about slavery pushed the country into a terrible conflict between the Northern abolitionists and the Southern proslavery farmers and plantation owners. Utilizing sentiments developed by the Quakers during the eighteenth century, abolitionists proposed a brotherhood of humankind wherein, as Jesus had taught, each person would treat another person as he wished to be treated by any and every other person. Thomas, John L. Slavery Attacked: The Abolitionist Crusade. Was the division of states based off of moral grounds with Slavery or was it solely because of States’ rights? His writing encouraged them to take power and vote to rid slavery from the soil. You may also like: Jacqueline Jones on Civil War Savannah George Forgie on Civil War classics Daina Berry on former-slave narratives. The war began as a struggle to preserve the Union, not a struggle to free the slaves but as the war dragged on it became increasingly clear to President Abraham Lincoln the best way to force the seceded states into submission was to The question of whether to continue the practice of enslavement had not been at the forefront of national politics, came to great prominence once again. Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. Abolishment of Slavery The Civil War ended in 1865 with the Northern forces under the Union defeating the southern states fighting under Confederacy. The final decade before the Civil War witnessed an ever-expanding antislavery sentiment in the North. Though many factors played into the war, it is evident that slavery was the main reason for battle. The outbreak of the Civil War forever changed the future of the American nation and perhaps most notably the future of Americans held in bondage. It was an economic crisis over the cotton economy in the South and the Northern mills that turned that cotton into products for sale. Photo Credits Map of percentage of slaves in the population in each county in the slave-holding states of the United States in 1860. The other form of rebuttal to southerners' biblically based arguments occurred when some abolitionists shifted their morally based arguments away from Scripture to appeals to the human conscience. Regarding how southern slave owners had fulfilled their duties in the antebellum South, Bishop Stephen Elliott (1806–1866) of Georgia stated, "We are educating these people [the southern slaves] as they are educated nowhere else; that we are elevating them in every generation; that we are working out God's purposes, whose consummation we are quite willing to leave in his hands" (Jenkins 1960, p. 218). Abolitionists contrasted such sins with "the pure ideals of Yankee evangelicalism" that imbued the households of true Christians, most definitely their own, in the North (Stewart 1976, p. 41). Background. The American Civil War is no exception. During the 1850s, with the reinforced Fugitive Slave Act bringing "man stealing" to the North, popular sovereignty allowing for the possibility of slavery in the Kansas Territory, and the judgment in Dred Scott v. Sandford apparently upholding pro-slavery views of the Constitution, the abolitionists' visions of a proslavery conspiracy that would undermine a free America became a view adopted by many northerners. In the southern system the role of the church was to instruct each party in the ways that it should fulfill its obligations. promin…, In colonial North America, the nonviolent Society of Friends stood almost alone in condemning slavery, which has led to the common misperception that…, Horace Greeley The Congress passed the 13th amendment which abolished slavery in the United States on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. After the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), the United States gained vast tracts of territory in the West, including the present-day states of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The Civil War, like many conflicts was not just a bout of petty squabbling that escalated into warfare, but a more complex event that was affected by a number of factors. Regarding moral considerations, where does slavery stack up against the persecution and extermination of the Jews (among others)? In a slave labor society, the worker was there against his will. While it is true that antislavery sentiment that had developed during the revolutionary period did not disappear during the early years of the republic, the militant phase of American abolitionism occurred during the last three decades of the antebellum period. This issue was not one that sprang up between the North and South though. Slavery played the central role during the American Civil War.The primary catalyst for secession was slavery, especially Southern political leaders' resistance to attempts by Northern antislavery political forces to block the expansion of slavery into the western territories.Slave life went through great changes, as the South saw Union Armies take control of broad areas of land. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976. Though many factors played into the war, it is evident that slavery was the main reason for battle. In the United States, pro-slavery sentiment arose in the antebellum period as a reaction to the growing antislavery movement in the United States in the late 18th century and early 19th century. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/moral-debates-slavery, Preserving the Institution of Slavery: An Overview. Moragas Cantarero, María Sagrario of San Luis Gonzaga, Bl. Every year, there is new research that reveals new information about the causes of the Civil War. Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America. Howard Zinn once wrote that “The clash was not over slavery as a moral institution, rather the war was brought on by Northern and Southern elites who recognize the incompatibility of two distinct economic systems.”. Secondly, as James Brewer Stewart notes in his book, while the abolitionists did not become popular and their cause of immediate emancipation that led to universal brotherhood was not nationally adopted, their strong stance against repression made them martyrs of their cause. Stewart, James Brewer. It was a moral crisis over slavery. In practical, everyday terms pro-slavery theorists believed that, in contrast to conditions of the industrial laborer in the North, the slave in the South had security. For instance, when the proslavery advocate read the word slave in a particular verse, the abolitionist insisted on the word servant. In the former passage, God, speaking through Moses, authorizes the chosen people of Israel to make slaves of strangers in their promised land. Perhaps surprisingly, the defenders of slavery did make a more effective use of the Bible than did the abolitionists. In the United States the American Civil War (1861–1865) is one of the most significant events in American history, and in the years prior to this precipitous event the debates over slavery constitute one of the most dominating themes in American life. The abolitionists' assumption was that no one would want to be treated as a slave but would want to be a liberated person living in freedom. In Frederick Douglass's view, masters _____. The Compromise of 1850. Not one single act of Lincoln and the North in the war was motivated by moral considerations in regard to slavery. Helper insisted that the power of southern slave masters should have be taken away for the betterment of the confederacy and thus the Union. The advantage that the southern apologists had over the abolitionists in using Scripture is that while slavery is mentioned numerous times in the Bible, the references do not censure the institution. Though he may work hard, there was no incentive for him at the end of the day. The curious thing is that although slavery was the moral issue of the nineteenth century that divided the political leaders of the land, the average American had very little interest in slaves or slavery. William Seward, a Republican from the North, saw, Stephens said that the Negro was not equal to white men and it was only right that he be subordinate. A common belief is that it was the dispute about the morality of slavery that caused the southern states to secede but in reality, it was the economic and political issues of slavery that really played a part in the outbreak of the war. New York and Cambridge, U.K.: University of Cambridge Press, 1995. that plunged the U.S. into a civil war from 1861 to 1865. Horace Greeley Escaped from slavery to become one of the most Ethics and slavery Slavery can broadly be described as the ownership, buying and selling of human beings for the purpose of forced and unpaid labour. The North offered to preserve slavery irrevocably, but the North did not offer to give up the high tariffs and economic policies that the South saw as inimical to its interests. Newspaper publisher and abolitionist In the history of the United States, African Americans have always been discriminated against. Pro-slavery Thought in the Old South. Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America. 4,000,000. In that pamphlet, the abolitionist Beriah Green (1794–1874) argues that "every child of America" should be guaranteed the right of "wielding, within reasonable limits, his own powers, and employing his own resources, according to his own choice" (Ashworth 1995, p. 182). As John Ashworth (1995) notes in his study of slavery during the antebellum period, the moral arguments of the abolitionists should be taken seriously, but they should also be understood within a particular socioeconomic context. Furthermore, the advocates of slavery added that neither Jesus nor the apostles who had contact with the institution of slavery condemned it. New York: Pearson and Longman, 2007. The American Civil War is also referred to as the war between the Northern and Southern States or the Rebellion War that began in 1861. A favorite book of the New Testament for the proslavery defenders to cite was Philemon because the apostle tells the runaway slave, Onesimus, to return to his master, Philemon. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. The frequency of civil wars in modern society means this essay takes the prime focus of civil war conflicts. 1505 Words 7 Pages. Slavery Was the Primary Cause of the Civil War The American Civil War, also known as the War Between the States, the War of Rebellion, or the War for the Southern Independence, began on April 12, 1861. The Civil War was inevitable because the North and South disagreed on morality of slavery, whether the institution was constitutional, and whether changing the “southern way of life” would be good or bad. The North was opposed to slavery long before the Civil War. Helper stated, “to say nothing of the sin and the shame of slavery, we believe it is a most expensive and unprofitable institution…” He further claimed that if slavery was gone, non-slaveholding whites would reap the moral benefits because they would be seen as equals. Which of the following was true of churches in the pre-Civil War South? ." The strategy known as moral suasion emphasized the _____ consequences of slavery. The Struggle for Freedom: A History of African Americans. The Civil War Wasn't About Slavery. It must not be forgotten that there were slave-holding states in the Union. In fact, with Noah's curse on Canaan in Genesis 8:25-27, pro-slavery theorists believed that they had found biblical proof that the natural state of some people is bondage; in particular, they tried to prove that the curse on Canaan encompassed the Africans. treatment of the ‘peculiar institution’ was an extension of antebellum pro-slavery arguments. Ta-Nehisi Coates ... , based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth. Lincoln's view never changed, and as the war progressed, the moral component, ending slavery, became more and more fixed in his mind. The American Civil War was an issue of moral differences between the North and the South! Only a minority of Southern presbyteries was represented. Moreover, abolitionists contended that the conditions of slavery in the Bible were not harsh and evil such as those in the antebellum South. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/moral-debates-slavery, "Moral Debates on Slavery Lydia Maria Child (1802–1880), a moderate abolitionist, argued that "the words of Christ" can be found in one's own conscience and not just the Bible; furthermore, she believed that "Protestants [southern proslavery apologists], in their blind hereditary worship of the Bible, worship an image as truly as the Catholics do" (Ashworth 1995, p. 173). Was the division of states based off of moral grounds with Slavery or was it solely because of States’ rights? Both are, indeed, evils. That is not to say the average Confederate soldier fought to preserve slavery or the average Union soldier went to war to end slavery. Another argument that a few southern theorists used to justify slavery was the one based on the diversity of races. One of the many bonds between the North and the South that was broken by the Civil War was religious unity. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Among others, these sins consisted of "economic exploitation, sexual license, gambling, drinking and dueling, [and a] disregard for family ties." Unlike Helper, who was a southerner in favor of emancipation, the state of South Carolina did not want to lose their way of life that was based on slavery. The Civil War turned a once united nation into two. In terms of developing a defense of slavery, apologists argued that bondage was the natural state for Africans. A minority of apologists relied on science to develop what the historian William Sumner Jenkins (1960) calls the ethnological justification of slavery, and these theorists did not emphasize the benefits of human bondage. . Slavery was regarded as the main reason leading to the war, as a high level of discrimination against the African Americans existed upon their arrival in the United States. Most were Protestants. Some fought because they felt their way of life and prosperity were threatened. The Congress passed the 13th amendment which abolished slavery in the United States on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. The slave economy had been very good to … In their new homeland, some beliefs would prevail while others would fade as cultures became integrated. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. While slavery and the slave trade were illegal in New York, the city benefited from and helped maintain Southern slavery. Abolitionists used moral arguments to counteract the case made by their pro-slavery counterparts. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. For many, the Civil War was about only one issue: slavery. Slavery And The Civil War. Therefore, because blacks are fundamentally inferior, their roles in southern socioeconomic order would naturally be toilers of drudgery. For others, it was about preserving the Union. The Civil War is one of the most prominent events in American History and is an event that most Americans are familiar with, at least on a conceptual level. Although the abolitionist must know this, must know that he has neither the right not the power of operating, except by moral means; that to benefit the slave he must not excite angry feelings in the master; that, although he may not approve the mode by which Providence accomplishes its purpose, the results will be the same; and that the reason he gives for interference in matters he has no concern … The most important of these issues was the subject of slavery. Blaming the war on slavery was the way the northern court historians used morality to cover up Lincoln’s naked aggression and the war crimes of his generals. Based on this ideal, Elizur Wright Jr. could write: "It is the duty of the holders of slaves to restore them to their liberty, and to extend to them the full protection of the law" (Stewart 1976, p. 44). It will become all one thing, or all the other." The differing morals of these two distinct regions sparked the beginning of the war and the position of slavery as a moral institution and the rate of its growth was an underlying issue of the war. If the Confederacy had been a separate nation, it would have ranked as the fourth richest in the world at the start of the Civil War. Both are, indeed, evils. Jenkins, William Sumner. In fact, the moral debate over slavery was sometimes shaped by the political context of the times. The Germans exploited slave … Even more decisive for the pro-slavery apologists were the passages in Leviticus 25:44-46 and Joshua 9:27. "Moral Debates on Slavery Immigrants helped to fuel the growth of the United States; they brought with them their beliefs shaped by former government and religious associations. When Slavery Was Called Freedom uncovers the cultural and ideological bonds linking the combatants in the Civil War era and boldly reinterprets the intellectual foundations of secession. He argued that the North was fighting a principle of politics that went against what God wanted. The Civil War …show more content… The war initially began because of uncompromising differences between free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in new territories. A larger concern for both North and South was the affects slavery had on the economy. This ethnographic argument, put forth by such persons as Josiah Clark Nott (1804–1873), assumed that there was a plural origin for humans and not a unitary one. That begs the question: what was the Civil War fought over? Boston: Thomson and Wadsworth, 2008 (upcoming). The proslavery theorists also used the Bible to develop a theory of society that was very different from the one propounded by the abolitionists. The sectional conflict grew from a rift between the North and South about various issues. The abolitionists' rebuttal to such biblically based arguments was to quibble over words. On this subject, I do not wish to think, to speak, or write with moderation" (Hyser and Arndt 2008 [upcoming], p. 186). The question of whether to continue the practice of enslavement had not been at the forefront of national politics, came to great prominence once again. Because Stout deflects the moral weight of slavery and freedom, he leaves himself in a difficult position. . When abolitionists such as Child had assumed such a nonbiblical position, the proslavery theorists believed that victory in the argument had been decided in their favor. One of the many bonds between the North and the South that was broken by the Civil War was religious unity. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Not one single act of Lincoln and the North in the war was motivated by moral considerations in regard to slavery. . While slavery and the slave trade were illegal in New York, the city benefited from and helped maintain Southern slavery. Certainly by the 1850s the abolitionists had made slavery the number one issue in the country. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Some fought on moral grounds. Without morality it’s hard to find a reason not to have slaves. John Patrick Daly dissects the evangelical defense of slavery at … Abolishment of Slavery The Civil War ended in 1865 with the Northern forces under the Union defeating the southern states fighting under Confederacy. In Frederick Douglass's view, masters _____. Encyclopedia.com. Like the Quakers before themselves, the nineteenth-century abolitionists considered the enslavement of another human to be a sin. JAMES BUCHANAN was neither exciting nor charismatic, but the power of his office and his character, principles, belie…, Morais Barros, Prudente José de (1841–1902), Moraine Valley Community College: Tabular Data, Moraine Valley Community College: Narrative Description, Moraine Park Technical College: Tabular Data, Moraine Park Technical College: Narrative Description. The war began as a struggle to preserve the Union, not a struggle to free the slaves but as the war dragged on it became increasingly clear to President Abraham Lincoln the best way to force the seceded states into submission was to In conclusion, the Civil War might not be as black and white as we would like to believe. So, in the mindset of pro-slavery men, slavery was for protecting the common good of slaves, masters, and society as a whole. 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