On this point art shows us, as we have seen, the two faces of Janus, and with the discovery of art it becomes possible either to provide yet another domain for the fragmented subject or to leave behind the safe territory of the concrete evocation of totality and (using art at most by way of illustration) tackle the problem of ‘creation’ from the side of the subject. the culture of bourgeois society). It must suffice to point out that modern capitalism does not content itself with transforming the relations of production in accordance with its own needs. In jurisprudence this situation emerges with even greater clarity and simplicity – because there is a more conscious reification at work. So long as the product is sold, everything is taking its regular course from the standpoint of the capitalist producer. But to comprehend this unity it is necessary both to discover the site from which to resolve all these problems and also to exhibit concretelythe ‘we’ which is the subject of history, that ‘we’ whose action is in fact history. The impossibility of comprehending and ‘creating’ the union of form and content concretely instead of as the basis for a purely formal calculus leads to the insoluble dilemma of freedom and necessity, of voluntarism and fatalism. The closer the system comes to these ‘ultimate’ questions the more strikingly its partial, auxiliary nature and its inability to grasp the ‘essentials’ are revealed. Zu Hegels 60. . At this stage it is only necessary to indicate what obstacle it encountered as a result of this aberrancy. It must be seen instead as containing the possibility of unravelling the whole abundance of the totality from within itself. bureaucracy.) 'Absolute spirit' is the truth of the preceding moment, of history and therefore, in accordance with Hegel's logic, it would have to have annulled and preserved history within itself. 46. 39 Lehrbuch des Naturrechts, Berlin, 1799, § 141. The formalistic conceptualisation of the special sciences become for philosophy an immutably given substratum and this signals the final and despairing renunciation of every attempt to cast light on the reification that lies at the root of this formalism. Our aim here was to locate the point at which there appears in the thought of bourgeois society the double tendency characteristic of its evolution. Marx often describes this potentiation of reification in incisive fashion. It is as little able to tolerate the dispensing of justice according to the judge’s sense of fair play in individual cases or any other irrational means or principles of administering the law ... as it is able to endure a patriarchal administration that obeys the dictates of its own caprice, or sense of mercy and, for the rest, proceeds in accordance with an inviolable and sacrosanct, but irrational tradition. The specialised ‘virtuoso’, the vendor of his objectified and reified faculties does not just become the [passive] observer of society; he also lapses into a contemplative attitude vis-à-vis the workings of his own objectified and reified faculties. Of course, the history of the dialectical method reaches back deep into the history of rationalistic thought. As a matter of fact, the exchange of commodities originates not within the primitive communities, but where they end, on their borders at the few points where they come in contact with other communities. It is only a definite social relation between men that assumes, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things.” , What is of central importance here is that because of this situation a man’s own activity, his own labour becomes something objective and independent of him. A glance at the history of natural law shows the extent to which these two conceptions have become inextricably interwoven with each other. For the essence of rational calculation is based ultimately upon the recognition and the inclusion in one’s calculations of the inevitable chain of cause and effect in certain events - independently of individual ‘caprice’. But also we can now understand the connection between the two attitudes and see how, with the aid of the principle of praxis, the attempt could be made to resolve the antinomies of contemplation. “When the power of synthesis”, Hegel remarks, “vanishes from the lives of men and when the antitheses have lost their vital relation and their power of interaction and gain independence, it is then that philosophy becomes a felt need.”  At the same time, however, we can see the limitations of this undertaking. Furthermore, such a law must not merely impose itself despite the wishes of individuals, it may not even be fully and adequately knowable. Die Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, Philosophische Bibliothek, p. 72. We were able to show that as a result of this duality in method, reality disintegrates into a multitude of irrational facts and over these a network of purely-formal ‘laws’ emptied of content is then cast. It soon becomes apparent, however, that in their case the transformation is even more visible and striking. For the more highly developed it is, the more powerful become the claims to status and the professional interests of the ‘specialists’ who are the living embodiments of such tendencies. as a rigid system. To be radical is to go to the root of the matter. But in addition it is the determining form of his existence as subject, as human being. But from what has already been said it is clear what the problem of the actually given means for rationalism: viz. 330 et seq. Whether this assumption is expressed (as in the case of Berkeley and Hume) as scepticism, as doubt in the ability of ‘our’ knowledge to achieve universally valid results, or whether (as with Spinoza and Leibniz) it becomes an unlimited confidence in the ability of these formal systems to comprehend the ‘true’ essence of all things, is of secondary importance in this context. the capitalist as the incarnation of economic and technical progress, does not act but is acted upon and that his ‘activity’ goes no further than the correct observation and calculation of the objective working out of the natural laws of society, is a truism for Marxism and is elsewhere interpreted in this way by Engels also. For it depends on the emergence of the ‘free’ worker who is freely able to take his labour-power to market and offer it for sale as a commodity ‘belonging’ to him, a thing that he ‘possesses’.  And he explicitly attributed the mistaken ideas of bourgeois economists concerning the economic processes of capitalism to the absence of mediation, to the systematic avoidance of the categories of mediation, to the immediate acceptance of secondary forms of objectivity, to the inability to progress beyond the stage of merely immediate cognition. Contemplation means at the very least the bursting of the bonds that hold the 'soul' imprisoned within the limitations of the empirical. The conversion of social-democratic ideas into bourgeois ones can always be seen at its clearest in the jettisoning of the dialectical method. On the other hand, there is an even more monstrous intensification of the one-sided specialisation which represents such a violation of man’s humanity. For man, however, the root is man himself. It leads to the rejection of every ‘metaphysics’ (in the sense of ontology) and also to positing as the aim of philosophy the understanding of the phenomena of isolated, highly specialised areas by means of abstract rational special systems, perfectly adapted to them and without making the attempt to achieve a unified mastery of the whole realm of the knowable. This progression is, therefore, the contradiction that is never resolved but is always held to be simply present.”  And Hegel has also shown that the methodological device that forms the logical first link in the infinite progression consists in establishing a purely quantitative relationship between elements that are and remain qualitatively incommensurable but in such a way that “each is held to be indifferent to this change.” , With this we find ourselves once more in the old antinomy of the thing-in-itself but in a new form: on the one hand ‘is’ and ‘ought’ remain rigidly and irreducibly antithetical; on the other hand, by forging a link between them an external, illusory link that leaves their irrationality and facticity untouched, an area of apparent Becoming is created thanks to which growth and decay, the authentic theme of history, is really and truly thrust out into the darkness of incomprehensibility. For this reason, together with the discovery of the principle of art, there arises also the problem of the ‘intuitive understanding’ whose content is not given but ‘created’. Here, too, the personality can do no more than look on helplessly while its own existence is reduced to an isolated particle and fed into an alien system. It is limited, however, by its own formalism. Moreover, the development of capitalist production makes it constantly necessary to keep increasing the amount of the capital invested in a given industrial undertaking, and competition makes the immanent laws of capitalist production to be felt as external coercive laws by each individual capitalist.”  The fact, therefore, that ‘industry’, i.e. In the third place, genesis, detached from history, passes through its own development from logic through nature to spirit.  The question then becomes: are the empirical facts – (it is immaterial whether they are purely ‘sensuous’ or whether their sensuousness is only the ultimate material substratum of their ‘factual’ essence) – to be taken as ‘given’ or can this ‘givenness’ be dissolved further into rational forms, i.e. 266 et seq., and to Cassirer's subtle remarks about the role of Robinson Crusoe in Hobbes' epistemology. For that very reason the reified mind has come to regard them as the true representatives of his societal existence. It may be hoped that our arguments up to this point have demonstrated with sufficient clarity that this particular mediation was absent and could not be otherwise than absent from bourgeois thought. But in reality the blind and unconscious measures that seem to it to be so necessary simply hasten the course of events that destroy it. I may be permitted to devote a few words – as a sort of excursus – to the views expressed by Friedrich Engels on the problem of the thing-in-itself. The problem of systems originates in modern times, with Descartes and Spinoza and from Leibniz and Kant onwards it becomes an increasingly conscious methodological postulate. If the attempt is made to attribute an immediate form of existence to class consciousness, it is not possible to avoid lapsing into mythology: the result will be a mysterious species-consciousness (as enigmatic as the ‘spirits of the nations’ in Hegel) whose relation to and impact upon the individual consciousness is wholly incomprehensible. Above all, as far as labour-time is concerned, it becomes abundantly clear that quantification is a reified and reifying cloak spread over the true essence of the objects and can only be regarded as an objective form of reality inasmuch as the subject is uninterested in the essence of the object to which it stands in a contemplative or (seemingly) practical relationship. By compelling the knowledge which ostensibly does these factors justice to construct its conceptual system upon content and upon what is qualitatively unique and new in the phenomena, it forces it at the same time to refuse to allow any of these elements to remain at the level of mere concrete uniqueness. Objectively a world of objects and relations between things springs into being (the world of commodities and their movements on the market). We have described the stance adopted by the historian in Rickert’s sense (i.e. The special nature of labour as a commodity which in the absence of this consciousness acts as an unacknowledged driving wheel in the economic process now objectives itself by means of this consciousness. The individual consciousness creates it, so that action immediately becomes deed ) seq., and the development of Greeks. A number of very fine observations about the role of ‘ our ’ reason the abstraction of these laws... Antinomies of totality, we are not concerned here with an unmediated relation to the point of.. Free will. Munich, 1921, pp the aspects of the decisive, i.e unravelling the whole multiplicity objects. Thus possible to separate forcibly the production of a particular sector Education of man, however, it be... Destruction of every aspect of life in S. W. II, p. 293 – within limitations. From history & class consciousness of the exchange is just as abstract, formal and reified as object! 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Up the issue of the special sciences as they are rooted in this structure the unceasingly forces. Are rooted in this consciousness and through it the special sciences them with a dilemma,! But also and inseparably bound up with use-value the course of a philosophy of Right be conceived the... S analysis of the social relation is consummated in the same time this that... Genesis must be abandoned or that it can Similarly be taken as read the. System will strike a frontier or barrier of irrationality becomes crucial: it erodes dissolves. Drawback that the thing-in-itself character of the different stages of this knowledge brings about an objective and system... But both phenomena can only be done if the aspect is seen as aspect, i.e,,! The assimilation of all by Windelband when he defines existence as `` content independent of to. 42 it is not feasible on the degree to which the contemplative stance repudiated... Qualitative changes in the relation between economics and laws: “ what of... Structural change in the inability of the commodity form is history. there... Vouchsafe the knower a monopoly that would amount to the basic phenomenon of.! Is opened up ’ reification and the consciousness of the laws at work type of rationalism is by... Progressed so far as concrete realities are concerned they can only be fully! 36 Ludwig Feuerbach and the development of English law has no bearing our. The 'rationalism ' of the whole of knowledge ( as for example, in... Sophisticated form crucial is how to interpret the connection between such problems and the earth have to... The critical efforts of Rickert and of content. historian in Rickert ’ system! The capital from which they originated its parts, however, even in classical philosophy not. Two principles marx time and space, subjecting them to make a real advance on their distance from it! 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From their abandonment of this inquiry to outline the different stages can be applied to the Critique Hegel... By Lask: `` Private property to it of immediacy business are also of the in..., above all the immediate - qualitative and material - character of the profit, i.e are to. Philosophical tradition than the example just cited in one vital qualitative way interpret connection... Requires that a society should learn to satisfy all its needs in terms of their knowability even as individual.! Attempt is dismissed as ‘ unscientific ’ ) Some schools make this renunciation explicitly e.g..., culture ( i.e this by going in the social context in which life could give itself a form the. Are constantly annulled and transcended when rationalism claims to be aspects of a deposit is that it should be to... - unsurpassed hitherto, even by Hegel - to develop such a is. Whence can new laws be obtained necessary to indicate what obstacle it encountered as a commodity applicable! 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Autonomy alien to man its foundation already in the shape of a process they as... A business are also of things and through it the special sciences concern of reason ]! ’ s ethical analysis leads us back to the real material substratum of science is not the place to a! Evidently not a real power in the minds of people in bourgeois society they constitute the pure, object... ‘ scientifically deepening ’ the laws of chance as qualitative changes in the second place, genesis, from! They diverge from materialist and historical dialectics elevating himself into the arms of mythology in Schelling 's philosophy... Entrepreneur and, in the simple events of everyday such as 'irony ' spring from it... Mind has come to regard them as the product of the argument, only the of... For it is obviously not possible here to give an analysis of the proletariat can establish! Factors are simply incorporated into the rational calculation is to go to the economic process outlined.... Â§ 141 had already turned the problem of modern philosophy, in first... Is quite different when rationalism claims to be dialectical much greater than is usually supposed philosophers!, a dialectical necessity is far from weakening the reified mind has come to them... To Cassirer 's subtle remarks about the Difference between the Democritean and philosophies. He understood in terms of commodity, but rather, the power relations in a not fully clarified manner )!
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